Galaxies - Basic Catalogs and Data Collections
From my (biased?) observer's point of view, data on galaxies is
where we must start in understanding them. With electronic collections,
getting the numbers is easier than ever before. However, it still
helps to know where the numbers come from, and what the initial
selection of various catalogs was. In particular, just how a catalog
sample was compiled may have a great influence on what one can learn from it.
Surface-brightness and flux selection criteria are especially important
in this regard. Furthermore, there is a big difference between an object list
and a catalog including uniform physical data for each entry.
To catalog something, we must see that (1) an object is there and (2)
it is not something else. For galaxies, we must detect them at some
wavelength and distinguish them from stars, planetary nebulae, galactic
cirrus, and navigation satellites. Most surveys to this point
have been done in the optical,
until recently from examination of photographic plates. This implies certain
(1) Anything less than about 1 arcsecond in size looks like a star on normal
ground-based images, and can be
distinguished only by nonstellar colors or spectrum (QSOs, compact
galaxies; this worked fine for the SDSS, for example). HST imagery shows
that there are lots of faint galaxies
at high redshift which could masquerade as faint stars from the ground
(in practice this enters in significant numbers only for magnitudes
fainter than V=20, although such rarities as
be somewhat brighter).
(2) Any object with surface brightness too low (much less than about 1% of the
night-sky brightness for routine kinds of data) would only be found when near enough for individual
stars to be seen (this is how the Sculptor dwarf galaxy was discovered).
Surface brightness (received flux per unit solid angle) is often
measured in the definitely non-SI units of magnitude per square arcsecond
for optical and near-IR passbands; one also encounters MJy/steradian,
S(10) (the light of a V=10 star per square degree), and very occasionally
the SI unit of a nit (candela per square meter). Major components in
the optical are airglow (much in isolated atomic and molecular emission lines)
and scattered starlight from Solar System dust (zodiaal light) and
interstellar dust. From a dark site, the dust/airglow contributions
are about equal in the V band. In the near-IR, airglow molecular emission
OH bands, the "OH forest") become extremely bright; gains of many thousands in
sensitivity are possible by going to space. Details on typical
sky brightnesses may be found in
Leinert et al. 1998 (A&ASuppl 127, 1),
Representative dark-sky values in magnitudes per square arcsecond are 22.5-23.1
in the B band and 21.5-22.0 in V. About a factor of 2 variation occurs with
the solar cycle, with airglow faintest at sunspot minimum. Arp took
advantage of this for many of his peculiar-galaxy photographs.
These limits translate to biases on the kinds of galaxies found by
a particular technique; see the discussion in Mihalas and Binney (p. 371)
on the detection problem
and The Light of the Night Sky by Roach and Gordon (Reidel, 1973)
for discussion of sources of confusing light (airglow, scattered sunlight
and starlight, and unresolved galaxy light). Disney (1976, Nature 263, 573)
described a visibility function for galaxies incorporating these
Arp noted this problem in the
Peculiar Galaxies, and the issue
is discussed at some length by Mihalas and Binney (their fig. 5-47, p. 372).
The plot below was made from the 1036 galaxies in the RC2 with known
integrated B magnitude, redshift, and characteristic diameter D25,
using the same reference lines for surface-brightness limits as were
adopted by Mihalas and Binney.
The upper dashed line indicates where confusion with
foreground Galactic stars sets in (depending
on the image quality; HST compact galaxies occur with effective diameter
of order 2 kpc and MB up to -21 or so). The lower limit is roughly
where most of a galaxy falls below the surface-brightness threshold
set by the night-sky brightness (usually a few percent of the sky intensity).
Objects have now been found outside these limits. Compact objects cannot
escape detection in complete spectroscopic studies of faint samples, while
low-surface-brightness (LSB) objects require very deep imaging studies. Numerous
LSB dwarfs are known, and the census is not regarded as complete even
within the Local Group. Photographic amplification techniques have led to
the discovery of LSB giant galaxies (Bothun et al. 1987 AJ 94,23;
Impey and Bothun 1989 ApJ 341, 89; Bothun et al. 1990 ApJ 360, 427).
These systems are very luminous but so large as to have escaped previous
detection. It is quite fair to question how far our understanding of galaxy
formation and evolution is influenced by selection effects in what we
consider typical galaxy properties to be. Zwicky used his "morphological
approach" to ask what kinds of galaxies might exist, on the
premise that all physical objects not prohibited from existing
must be out there, and positing not only dwarf and compact galaxies,
but pygmy and gnome objects as well. Others have referred to this procedure as
dividing parameter space into Zwicky boxes and ruling out the ones that
violate physical law.
The giant LSB galaxies are well represented by Malin 1, an object
hiding behind the Virgo Cluster. These images are from a single
B-band image provided by Greg Bothun, first with a typical intensity
mapping and then with a high-contrast stretch about the sky level.
The faint galaxy disk almost fills the frame, but at more usual
thresholds it appears to be a much smaller and fainter system.
At the other end of the scale, QSOs furnish a test of our ability to find
unresolved extragalactic objects (without necessarily suggesting that
they are the only kinds of compact extragalactic objects). The first discoveries
were as identifications of radio sources (3C 48, 3C 273), with Zwicky compact
galaxies not far behind. The most productive optical search techniques for
these are multicolor surveys (looking in some n-dimensional color-index
things that fall off the sequence defined by galactic stars) or slitless
spectroscopy, in which emission lines or peculiar continuum shapes may be
identified wholesale. X-ray source identifications may be the most fruitful
of all, especially since large-area deep surveys are in hand. (For examples
of multiwavelength ID, see the extensive
compendium of quasar
candidates put together by a New Zealand amateur!)
Space observations (or those with adaptive optics) help most for
angularly small objects (HST resolves numerous compact galaxies that
look stellar from the ground). The background at V is not much darker from
Earth orbit than from a dark ground site, since half the sky light there
comes from sunlight or other starlight scattered by zodiacal or
interstellar grains. The situation improves dramatically either into the UV
or the far red.
Searches for some subclasses of galaxies can be more efficient, approaching
the flux-limited ideal. This includes, for example, infrared- or
radio-bright galaxies. In these instances, confusion with galactic objects
(i.e. stars) is minimized, so that high spatial resolution is not required
to recognize galaxies and they may be identified with rather coarse beams,
provided the galaxies have high enough integrated fluxes at the relevant
frequency. Large beam sizes reduce the risk of losing objects due to
limited surface-brightness sensitivity.
A basic question arises at this point - just what is a galaxy? For
theorists of galaxy formation, it is a collapsing high-density region of gas.
For observers, we might require that the gas at some time formed some stars -
but then what about the few intergalactic H I clouds? When do they cease
being protogalaxies and become gas-rich dwarfs? Does a lump of material
torn out of a spiral during a tidal encounter deserve the name? Is it then
newly formed? Kinematics suggest that a galaxy is collected in a dark-matter
potential well, while even the biggest star clusters are not - that is,
globular clusters have no dark-matter problem, while essentially all
galaxies do (even if they're no brighter than an individual globular cluster).
Thought experiment: In our night sky (with skyglow and looking no
fainter than, say, 19th visual magnitude) stars are much more prominent
than galaxies. Why is this, and what would we have to change to reverse the
Optical surveys that are complete within any sort of useful limits were long
based on Schmidt sky-survey plates - from the Palomar, ESO, or UK Schmidts.
Such surveys include the UGC, MCG, and ESO/Uppsala catalogs (see reference
list) - but most of the 107 or so galaxies on these plates are too faint
to be of more than statistical interest. These surveys are based on visual
inspection, so that optical catalogs now lag behind radio and IR surveys.
There has long been a crying need for a digital optical sky survey,
filled to an important extent by
the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).
Optical surveys are sensitive to the intermediate-temperature stellar
component exemplified by older main-sequence stars (like the Sun,
which is not exactly a coincidence) and K-type red giants. The old
populations, and dusty ones, are well sampled by near-IR surveys,
of which 2MASS has now surveyed the whole sky with modest
surface-brightness sensitivity. The optical and near-IR bands are special
in that all other bands are dominated by the effects of recent star formation
or nuclear activity,
so much of galaxy history is written at these intermediate waveengths.
I describe first the specific catalogs
containing most well-studied galaxies and active nuclei, then
point to useful (mostly electronic, by now) compendia that every astronomer
working on galaxies should have in their bookmark list.
Basic Object Catalogs
NGC = New General Catalog. Includes star clusters, galaxies, gaseous
nebulae, and hallucinations, mostly from the visual surveys by the
Herschels. Produced by J. Dreyer in the 1880s. The modern version is the
Revised New General Catalog of Nonstellar Astronomical Objects,
Sulentic and Tifft, Univ. Arizona 1973. The entries are ordered by right
ascension at epoch 1855, which makes things somewhat confusing in current
coordinates (especially when there are large declination jumps between objects).
( Electronic version at the CDS)
IC = Index Catalog, supplement to the above, with another 7000+ entries.
NGC 2000 compilation includes both NGC and IC lists.
3C = Third Cambridge Catalog of radio sources selected at 178 MHz.
Optical identifications of extragalactic sources are given by Spinrad, Djorgovski,
and Aguilar 1985 PASP 97, 932.
CDS electronic version)
Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies, G. and A. de Vaucouleurs, U. Texas,
Austin 1964. Includes literature citations and descriptions of individual
structures. Although superseded by the RC2 and RC3,
online data are still available.
Second Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC2), de Vaucouleurs, de
Vaucouleurs, and Corwin, U. Texas, Austin 1976. Much updated version, with
redshifts, magnitudes, and classifications. Long the basic reference.
CDS digital version
Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3), de Vaucouleurs et
al., Springer 1991.
Beyond belief, best approached on disk. Three volumes on paper.
Comparing the three RC versions gives some sense of how much data
collection has accelerated in the last three decades.
CDS files of the revised edition. The mix of different kinds
of designations, plus the disorder among NGC and IC systems produced
by precession since their original epochs, makes finding a given
object by name interesting. On Unix systems, grep is your friend.
And most of the time, NED is an even better friend.
Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RSA), A. Sandage and G.
Tammann, Carnegie Inst. of Washington 1981. Complete data for 1300 galaxies
brighter than B=13.2, with a selection of photographs illustrating Sandage's
version of the Hubble system.
Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies (UGC), P. Nilsson, 1973, Uppsala Obs. Publ. 12942 galaxies larger than 1 arcminute in diameter from a full
examination of the Palomar Sky Survey. Covers the sky north of -2.5°.
ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas, Lauberts 1982 , ESO Garching.
Galaxies, nebulae, and star clusters south of -17°, from examination
of the ESO Quick Blue Survey. Classifications compatible with the UGC.
Lauberts and Valentijn (ESO, 1989) did densitometry of the plates for these
galaxies, producing an extensive photometric catalog including shape
and orientation parameters.
Morphological Catalog of Galaxies
Galaktik, lacking a good Cyrillic font),
Vorontsov-Velyaminov and coworkers, 4 vol., Shternberg State Astronomical
Institute, Moscow. Objects north of -33° from PSS. Uses VV's own
system of classification, sometimes wonderfully descriptive but not easy to
mesh with standard Hubble types. Strictly keyed to PSS fields - no running
numbers, so a typical name is MCG (leading minus signs are significant;
for example, MCG +5-03-013 and MCG -5-03-013 are both Seyfert galaxies, a
wonderful chance for total confusion). The VV designations have never
been very popular with Western astronomers, in part because the morphological
designations could hardly have been designed
to be less friendly for ASCII coding and
searching, and because the lack of a single running designation similarly
made them unnecessarily difficult for early digital work.
A fifth volume of the MCG covers southern
galaxies to declination -58° from the PSS red-light extension, changing the
magnitude scale. The
online version does not include the original set of nontypographical
symbols used for some of the classifications, and splits
Volume 5 as separate files.
Catalog of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies, Zwicky and coworkers. Yet
another examination of the PSS, with emphasis on groups and clusters. These
are the blue books, in six volumes. The
CDS version includes data on individual galaxies.
Catalog of Selected Compact Galaxies and of Post-Eruptive Galaxies,
Zwicky 1971, Speich, Zürich. The red book; a real zoo of normal galaxies,
interacting systems, Seyferts, compact dwarfs,... The introduction is
amusing, and might be considered libellous today. Watch especially
for "scatter-brained", "appalling naivety of the theoreticians",
"high pope of American Astronomy", and "autistic interpretations".
This is finally
available in electronic form.
Pictures of galaxies:
Hubble Atlas of Galaxies, Sandage 1961, Carnegie Inst. of Washington. Basic
reference for the Hubble classification scheme.
Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, Arp 1966, Caltech, Pasadena (also in reduced
size in ApJSuppl 14,1). Picked for bizarre appearance - interacting
systems, plumes, dust lanes, twisted arms. Very deep Palomar photographs.
images of high quality are available from NED. The photographic
plates for the Atlas and the care of their preparation for publication
represented a high point in the photography of galaxies.
Atlas and Catalog of Interacting Galaxies
(Atlas i katalog vzaimodeistvuyuschikh galaktik), Vorontsov-Velyaminov,
Shternberg Institute (1959, part 1) and A& A Suppl 28,1 (1977, part 2). 355 and
respectively, identified by sequential VV numbers. More extensive than the
Arp atlas, illustrated from the PSS, includes many probably non-interacting
systems such as clumpy irregular galaxies. Very idiosyncratic arrangement
and interpretation. Once again, NED level 5 provides a
A Catalog of Selected Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations, Arp and
Madore, Cambridge 1987 (2 vol.). From a complete search of the SERC(J)
plates, with accurate positions. Vol. 2 contains nice photos from the
Schmidt plates of a large, representative sample of these.
This one also exists in
digital and scanned form at NED.
Atlas of Galaxies Useful for Measuring the Cosmological Distance Scale,
Sandage and Bedke, NASA SP-496 (1988). The book big enough to be your
coffee table. Mostly designed to show partial resolution into stars for HST
planning, but has large-scale images of lots of nearby galaxies and allows
an excellent impression of Sandage's classification scheme.
High-quality photographs of many Virgo galaxies appeared in
Sandage and Bedke 1985 AJ 90,1992; 90,2001; and 90,2006. Dwarf
members were illustrated in Sandage and Binggeli 1984 AJ 89, 919, and
spiral luminosity classes were covered by Sandage, Binggeli, and Tammann 1985
AJ 90, 395.
Atlas de Galaxias Australes, Sersic 1967, Obs. Astronomico, Cordoba,
Argentina. Before the southern Schmidt surveys, these were the only
usable photographs of many southern galaxies.
Galaxies, Ferris 1982, Sierra Club Books. Gorgeous photos, enough to make
people understand why galaxies are so fascinating.
Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies, A. Sandage and J. Bedke (1994, Carnegie
Inst. of Washington). Two immense volumes, virtually all galaxies in the
Revised Shapley-Ames catalog from large-scale photographs taken at Palomar,
Mt. Wilson, or Las Campanas.
The biggest printed collection (1168 galaxies) available to refine your
de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies, collected by Buta, Corwin, and
Odewahn, Cambridge 2007.
See the bright-galaxy compendia, plus these specific collections:
Huchra, Davis, Latham and Tonry 1983, ApJSuppl 52, 89. First part of the
CfA survey, 2401 Zwicky and UGC galaxies brighter than MZw=14.5.
Gisler and Friel, Index of Galaxy Spectra, 1979 Pachart, Tucson. 2004
galaxies, surveys previously published data.
Palumbo, Tanzella-Nitti, and Vettolani, Catalog of Radial Velocities of
Galaxies, 1983, Gordon and Breach. 8250 galaxies from the literature.
Many sources from the NSSDC (and NED, if you can tell which consensus
value is listed) are useful for current redshift-survey results, which
have passed the 3-million-galaxy mark, rising so fast that electronic
retrieval is the only way to keep up. The Sloan Digital
Sky Survey (SDSS) alone yielded 106 galaxy redshifts
in the northern galactic cap in its first incarnation, and the AAT
survey delivered more than 220,000 in two southern fields.
Active Galactic Nuclei:
Handbook of Quasistellar and BL Lacertae Objects, E.R. Craine 1977,
Pachart, Tucson. Finding charts, fluxes, positions, references; much
less necessary now than it was before the Web.
A Revised and Updated Catalog of Quasi-Stellar Objects,
Hewitt and Burbidge 1993,
APJSuppl 87, 451. Basic data and citations for 7225 QSOs and 90 BL Lac
Optical Catalog of Radio Galaxies, Burbidge and Crowne 1979, APJSuppl 40,
583. Similar data for radio galaxies.
Catalogue of Quasars and Active Nuclei, Veron-Cetty and Veron, 12th edition,
Astron. Astrophys. (in press?), 2006. Also (and most usefully) available
Basic positional, flux, and type information for 85221 QSOs, 21737 active
and 1122 BL Lac objects. Some of the low-level AGN classifications at least
in the early editions were fantasy - if it was
called so by anyone, it will appear here. Did you know that the Andromeda
Galaxy is a Seyfert 2? QSOs are now being identified at a huge rate, especially
from followup of the FIRST radio survey and ROSAT all-sky survey in
soft X-rays, plus new optical multicolor work such as the Hamburg effort.
Earlier catalogs do not appear to have been as complete as we thought.
Catalogue of Seyfert Galaxies and Related Objects, Kaneko 1986, Hokkaido
Univ., Sapporo. 560 objects; similarly loose definition of "related".
A Catalogue of Seyfert Galaxies, Lipovetskii, Neizvestnii, and
Neizvestnaya, Publ. Special Astrophys. Obs. (USSR) vol. 55, 1987.
Includes 959 objects, with emission-line, IR, and radio fluxes, plus
morphological data on host galaxies.
An Optical Catalogue of Extragalactic Emission-Line Objects Similar to
Quasi-Stellar Objects, Hewitt and Burbidge ApJSuppl 75, 297 (1991).
Contorted way of saying Seyfert galaxies. 935 entries.
Handbook of Radio Sources, part 1, Pacholczyk 1978, Pachart, Tucson.
Selected extragalactic radio sources from 0-12 hours, with maps, fluxes,
and references. This was pre-VLA; still waiting for part 2.
Palomar-Green Bright Quasar Survey: Schmidt and Green 1983, ApJ 269, 352
and Green, Schmidt, and Liebert 1986 ApJSuppl 61, 305. A complete search
for UV-excess objects brighter than B=16 in the northern sky, with complete
confirming spectroscopy. These objects have very extensive further work (UV,
X-ray, radio, variability, line profiles) because it is the largest sample
of bright AGN.
Markarian UV-excess galaxies are important, since they contain a
large fraction of Seyfert 1 objects and actively star-forming systems. There
were 15 published lists from the original Byurakan objective-prism surveys,
all collected by Markarian, Lipovetskii, Stepanian, Erastova, and
Shapovalova, Publ. Special Astrophys. Obs. (USSR), vol. 62, 1989.
I have a local copy of their data table taken from
a diskette provided by Lipovetskii. Cross-correlation with
additional catalogs (notably the IRAS survey) was done by
Mazzarella and Balzano 1986, ApJSuppl 62, 751.
Additional surveys for UV-excess and emission-line galaxies have been done
by several groups:
Kazarian 1979-1982, in Astrofizika 15,5; 15, 193; 16,17 and 18, 512.
High-surface-brightness galaxies based on catalog photometry and sizes.
Arakelian high-surface-brightness galaxies, Soobsch. Byurakan Obs. 47,3
(1975). High-surface-brightness galaxies based on catalog photometry and sizes,
includes some prominent Seyferts.
Kiso UV-excess lists: Noguchi, Maehara, and Kondo, Ann. Tokyo Astrophys.
Obs. ser II 18, 53; Kondo, Noguchi, and Maehara, idem. 20, 130; Takase, Noguchi, and Maehara
1982, idem. 19, 440.
Michigan-Tololo emission-line survey:
ApJSuppl 34, 95 (1977); 35, 197(1977); 35, 203 (1977); 36, 587 (1978);
45, 113 (1981).
KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS): Salzer et al. 2000, AJ 120, 80
and later lists.
Madrid emission-line survey: Zamorano et al. 1994 ApJS 95, 387;
1996 ApJS 105, 343; Alonso et al. 1999 ApJS 122, 415
Radio and X-ray surveys: these are by now so extensive that they are most
sensibly approached digitally, from (for example) the
sites. The near-IR
2MASS survey covered the
entire sky at a level
detecting tens of thousands of galaxies from 1.2-2.2 microns, though the
surface-brightness level is not great for galaxy structures. Looking at
specific wavelength ranges:
Radio continuum surveys from about 6-90 cm are in excellent shape,
from the 3C and Parkes surveys plus a number of small fields surveyed very
deeply. Two different surveys at 20 cm (the NVSS and
projects) have been carried out with the VLA, covering
most of the accessible sky to flux limits typically a few mJy for
A radio galaxy such as M87
could be found anywhere within z=10 by current techniques.
These wavelengths are domanated by nonthermal processes such as
The far-infrared survey by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)
produced measurements from 12-100
m for over
250,000 galaxies, seen via
thermal dust emission. This is a treasure trove for seekers both of the
systematic and the exotic. At longer wavelengths, the
ESA Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) mission provided
dramatically improved sensitivity and somewhat better spatial
resolution for individual targets, in turn extended dramatically by the
detectors on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The near-infrared bands are sensitive
to the cooler giant populations, and at longer wavelengths we see mainly
interstellar dust heated by the assorted stellar components; at large
redshifts all these contributions naturally slide to longer wavelengths.
The IRAS survey has been repeated with much better resolution
and sensitivity by the Akari mission. The WISE survey recently filled the
gap between the ground-based 2MASS and far-IR IRAS and Akari data.
Note that the millimeter and submillimeter observations sample the
long-wavelength tail of the thermal dust emission normally seen in the
Radio line work is more difficult because of extra requirements of angular
resolution and the additional dimension of frequency space - that is, such
observations must generally be targeted at some known galaxy, from optical
or IR surveys. Hundreds (CO) or thousands (H I) of galaxies have been
observed well enough to measure a total line flux and velocity profile.
A few large-solid-angle surveys in H I have been conducted, looking for
optically obscured galaxies behind the Milky Way. The problem here is that
existing receivers can take in only a fairly narrow redshift range in a
single observation. Submillimeter receivers are now being deployed
which can take in a wide redshift range at once using CO lines.
X-ray surveys took a huge leap with ROSAT. These energies sample AGN, hot thermalized
gas, and the X-ray binary population tying to the recent star-forming
UV surveys remained primitive until the start of the
A few galaxies were been photographed from
sounding rockets, the Large Magellanic Cloud was imaged from the lunar surface
by Apollo 16, and a few dozen galaxies were observed by the
O'Connell has summarized a number of advantages to UV surveys,
largely accruing from the very low scattered-light background around 2500
Angstroms and the sensitivity of UV data to (unreddened) hot stellar
HST parallel observations are slowly
providing deep, high-resolution survey data over small areas of the sky.
Electronic archives and retrieval
The biggest news in data collections throughout astronomy has been, of course,
network resources. For galaxies, the
NASA Extragalactic Database (NED)
maintained at IPAC has ways of searching for basic data and literature
references by position or catalog designation (and even for objects close to a
known one). Somewhat different searches (for example, by availability of
2D or 3D kinematic information) are available using
at (a descendant of LEDA,
the Lyon Extragalactic Database).
To deal with whole catalogs at once,
you can retrieve them from the
CDS in Strasbourg.
includes powerful catalog search-and-plot routines.
The primary literature interface has become the NASA Astrophysics
Data System (ADS)
archive search tool.
There are emerging and powerful cross-links that let you enter
the data unierse via an object name, location, literature mention,
and emerge in one of the other kinds of interface. Mastering these
techniques has become a basic professional skill, as we move toward
the era a global Virtual Observatory (VO).
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